While roofs are installed to resist usual wind speeds, they can be weakened or damaged over the years by high wind speeds and debris. Immediately replacing missing or shifted shingles are the best way to prevent major damage and keep repairs from soaring.
Performing an outdoor inspection is a good way to quickly tell if there are any problems, but a thorough inspection should be performed by a
Composition shingles: curling, loss of granulation, broken, damaged or missing shingles
Wood shingles/shakes: Mold or decay, splitting or curling
Flat roof: Obvious patches, cracks or tears, several blisters and/or wrinkles (also check patched areas from inside the attic)
Flashing: Tears, buckling around roof penetrations
Roofing cement: Excess cement, crumbling
Soffits and fascia: Decay, stains
Soffit and ridge vents: Clogged or damaged vents, flashing and shingles around them curling or missing
Gutters: Decay or rust, leaky seams, loosely attached to structure, bent or sagging, missing sections of gutter or downspout, filled with debris. Clogged gutters can easily freeze shut and cause excessive weight on gutter fasteners, ice dam conditions, and slippery walks below.
Chimneys: Leaning, loose or missing flashing, damaged bricks, cap or cracked joints. Chimney flashing is especially prone to tearing because a chimney settles independently from the house.
To find less obvious roofing issues, though, you will have to perform an indoor inspection.
Check for Moisture marks, brown, yellow, or grey stains, and peeling paint on walls and/or ceilings as these could all indicate a damaged, leaking roof.
Call a Professional
Call in a roofer for a professional inspection. Getting on your roof yourself is not recommended as it can lead to personal injury and also further damage to your property. A trained professional also has the tools and safety techniques to get up on your roof and check for damage.